All materials, elements and components used for the construction of projects that are incorporated in the final constructed product.
Seluruh bahan, elemen dan komponen yang digunakan dalam proyek konstruksi yang disatukan menjadi produk akhir konstruksi
Allocating cost estimates to individual project components.
Alokasi dana yang diperkirakan untuk komponen-komponen proyek
The amount of cash being received and expended by a business, which is often analyzed into its various components.
- A profit, in the law of real estate, is a nonpossessory interest in land similar to the better-known easement, which gives the holder the right to take natural resources such as petroleum, minerals, timber, and wild game from the land of another
- operation: process or manner of functioning or operating; "the power of its engine determine its operation"; "the plane's operation in high winds"; "they compared the cooking performance of each oven"; "the jet's performance conformed to high standards"
A plan, prepared to scale, showing accurately and with complete dimensions, the boundaries of a site and the location of all buildings, structures, uses, and principal development features proposed for a specific parcel or parcels of land.
Fondasi (arsitektur), bagian dari struktur bangunan yang berfungsi untuk menahan berat bangunan ke permukaan
Removing excess water from contaminated soil, sediment, or other material, thus reducing the mass and volume of material that needs to be disposed of. The excess water may or may not need to be separately treated.
The usable portion of a building which is below the main entrance story and is partly or completely below grade.
In architecture and structural engineering, a column is that part of a structure whose purpose is to transmit through compression the weight of the structure. Other compression members are often termed columns because of the similar stress conditions. Columns can be either compounded of parts or made as a single piece. Columns are frequently used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest.
A wooden or metal case enclosing one or more pulleys and having a hook, eye, or strap by which it may be attached.
block consisting of a thick piece of something
A pavement structure which maintains contact with and distributes loads to the subgrade. The base course materials rely on aggregate interlock, particle friction, and cohesion for stability.
A driving surface made from Concrete.
A man-made structure bonding the edge of a dock and built along or at an angle to the shoreline, used for loading, unloading, or tying up vessels.
A structure usually projecting out into the Sea at the mouth of a river for the purpose of protecting a navigational channel, a harbor or to influence water currents.
breakwater: a protective structure of stone or concrete; extends from shore into the water to prevent a beach from washing away
Materials used to finish the inside surface of the tunnel. The inital supports and preliminary liner are placed as the tunnel is being excavated. These help stabilize the interior surface. Shotcrete may be sprayed on as a preliminary liner. Later, additional coatings may be applied or other types may be used such as prefabricated steel or concrete panels, rock bolting, steel ribs and wood lagging, or masonry. Waterproofing liners are also used.
Part of a structure which supports the end of a span or accepts the thrust of an arch; often supports and retains the approach embankment.
A horizontal structure member supporting vertical loads by resisting bending. A girder is a larger beam, especially when made of multiple metal plates. The plates are usually riveted or welded together.
a concrete footing for a pier or an abutment supported on piles or the concrete below the pile tops when footing reinforcing steel is placed completely above the piles. See also cap and pier cap
SUBBASE - The layer or layers of specified material of designed thickness placed on a subgrade to support a base course.
SUBGRADE - The existing site soil upon which the pavement structure is constructed.